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Primary Source Readings


Ayr News [Ayr, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915. 

Berliner Journal [Berlin, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915.

Daily Berlin Telegraph [Berlin, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915. 

The Elmira Signet [Elmira, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915. 

The Hespeler Herald [Cambridge, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915. 

The Waterloo Chronicle-Telegraph [Waterloo, Ontario, Canada] 1914 – 1915.


Census Data:

1871 Census of Canada,

1881 Census of Canada,

1891 Census of Canada,

1901 Census of Canada,

1911 Census of Canada, has added census records dating back to 1825 for parts of Canada, to search these records go to


Other Resources:

Berlin Celebration of Cityhood 1912. Berlin: The German Printing and Publishing Co of Berlin, 1912.

Borden, R. “Canada at War.” Speech, Ottawa, ON, 18 August 1914. Wartime Canada.

Breithaupt, W.H. ‘The Saengerfest of 1875,’ 22nd Annual Report of the Waterloo Historical Society, Kitchener: 1935. “Busy Berlin Jubilee Souvenir 1897,” published by the Berlin News-Record,

Maclean Rose, G. ed. A Cyclopæedia of Canadian Biography: being chiefly men of the time: a collection of persons distinguished in professional and political life: leaders in the commerce and industry of Canada, and successful pioneers. Toronto: Rose Publishing Co., 1886.

Ontario Archives Visual Database,


Secondary Source Readings

Journal Articles:

Frey, Bruno S. et al,. “Interactions of Natural Survival Instincts and Internalized Social Norms     Exploring the Titanic and Lusitania Disasters.” Proceedings of the National Academy of   Science of the United States of America 107. No. 11 (2010): 4862-4865.

Green, Leana. “Advertising War: Picturing Belgium in First World War Publicity.” Media, War & Conflict 7. No. 3 (2014): 309-325.

Hayes, G. “From Berlin to the Trek of the Conestoga: A Revisionist Approach to Waterloo County’s German Identity.” Ontario History 2 (1999): 131-150.

Leibbrandt, D. Gottlieb. “One hundred years of Concordia.” Waterloo County Historical Society 61 (1973).

Maroney, P. “ ‘The Great Adventure’: The Context and Ideology of Recruiting in Ontario, 1914- 1917.” Historical Review 77. No.1 (March 1996): 62-98.

Rutherdale, R. “Canada’s August Festival: Communitas, Luminality, and Social Memory. The Canadian Historical Review 77. No. 1 (June 1996): 221-249.



Brown, R.C. and Cook, R. Canada 1896-1921; A Nation Transformed. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974.

Cook, Tim. At the Sharp End: Canadians Fighting The Great War, 1914-1918 Volume 1. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2007.

Duguid, Col. F. Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War 1914-1919, General Series Vol. 1. Ottawa: J.O. Patenaude, printer to the King, 1938.

Haycock, R.G. Sam Hughes: The Public Career of a Controversial Canadian, 1885-1916. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press in collaboration with National Museums    of Canada, 1986.

Hayes, G. Waterloo County: An Illustrated History. Waterloo: Waterloo Historical Society, 1997.

Keshen, Jeffery A. Propaganda and Censorship During Canada’s Great War. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1996.

Leibbrant, G. Little Paradise: the Saga of the German Canadians in Waterloo County, Ontario,1800-1975. Kitchener: Allprint, 1980.

Löchte, Anne. Das Berliner Journal 1859-1918. Eine deutschsprachige Zeitung in Kanada. Göttingen: V&R unipress 2007.

McLaughin, K, and J. English. Kitchener: An Illustrated History. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1983.

McLaughlin, K. Made in Berlin. Kitchener: Joseph Schneider Haus Museum, 1989.

McLaughin, K. The Germans in Canada. Saint John: Keystone Printing&Lithography Ltd, 1985.

McLaughlin, K. Waterloo County: An Illustrated History. Windsor: Windsor Publications, 1990.

Miller, I. Our Glory and Our Grief: Torontonians and the Great War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.

Nicholson, Col. G.W.L. Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, 1962.

Radley, K. We Lead Others Follow: First Canadian Division 1914-1918. St. Catherines: Vanwell Publishing Limited: 2006.

Rutherdale, R. Hometown Horizons: Local Responses to Canada’s Great War. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004.

Strachan, H. The First World War Volume 1: To Arms. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Tucker, Spencer C. The Great War 1914-18. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana UP, 1998.

Vance, J. Maple Leaf Empire: Canada, Britain, and the Two World Wars. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Wood, J. Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.